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Umar bin khattab khalifah islam

Umar-Bin-Abdul-Aziz

Krisis pernah terjadi tepatnya pada tahun 18 hijriah. Peristiwa besar ini kemudian disebut “Krisis Tahun Ramadah”. Saat itu di daerah-daerah terjadi kekeringan yang mengakibatkan banyak orang dan binatang yang mati. Orang-orang pun banyak yang menggali lubang tikus untuk mengeluarkan apa yang ada di dalmnya—saking langkanya makanan.

Khalifah Umar yang berkulit putih, saat itu terlihat hitam. Ia pun berdoa: “Ya Allah, jangan Engkau jadikan kebinasaan umat Muhammad pada tanganku dan di dalam kepemimpinanku.”

Beliau juga berkata kepada rakyatnya: “Sesungguhnya bencana disebabkan banyaknya perzinaan, dan kemarau panjang disebabkan para hakim yang buruk dan para pemimpin yang zalim… Carilah ridha Tuhan kalian dan bertobatlah serta berbuatlah kebaikan”.

Tidak lama kemudian berbagai krisis tersebut segera diatasi. Saking sejahteranya, tiap bayi yang lahir pada tahun ke-1, mendapat insentif 100 dirham (1 dirham perak kini sekitar Rp. 30 ribu, tahun ke-2 mednapatkan 200 dirham, dan seterusnya. Gaji guru pun per bulan mencapai 15 dinar (1 dinar emas kini sekitar Rp 1,5 juta).

Masa Khalifah Umar bin al-Khaththab (13-23 H/634-644 M). Hanya dalam 10 tahun masa pemerintahannya, kesejahteraan merata ke segenap penjuru negeri. Pada masanya, di Yaman, misalnya, Muadz bin Jabal sampai kesulitan menemukan seorang miskin pun yang layak diberi zakat.

Abu Ubaid menuturkan (Al-Amwâl, hlm. 596), Muadz pernah mengirimkan hasil zakat yang dipungutnya di Yaman kepada Khalifah Umar di Madinah, karena Muadz tidak menjumpai orang yang berhak menerima zakat di Yaman. Namun, Khalifah Umar mengembalikannya. Ketika Muadz mengirimkan sepertiga hasil zakat itu, Khalifah Umar kembali menolaknya dan berkata, “Saya tidak mengutusmu sebagai kolektor upeti. Saya mengutusmu untuk memungut zakat dari orang-orang kaya di sana dan membagikannya kepada kaum miskin dari kalangan mereka juga.”

Muadz menjawab, “Kalau saya menjumpai orang miskin di sana, tentu saya tidak akan mengirimkan apa pun kepada Anda,” kata Muadz

Pada tahun kedua, Muadz mengirimkan separuh hasil zakat yang dipungutnya kepada Khalifah Umar, tetapi beliau pun mengembalikannya.

Pada tahun ketiga, Muadz kembali mengirimkan semua hasil zakat yang dipungutnya, yang juga dikembalikan lagi oleh Khalifah Umar. Muadz berkata, “Saya tidak menjumpai seorang pun yang berhak menerima bagian zakat yang saya pungut.” (Al-Qaradhawi, 1995).

Tidak hanya di Yaman, di wilayah Bahrain juga demikian. Abu Hurairah pernah menyerahkan uang 500 ribu dirham kepada Khalifah Umar yang diperolehnya dari hasil kharaj Propinsi Bahrain pada tahun 20 H/641 M. Pada saat itu Khalifah bertanya kepadanya, “Apa yang engkau bawa ini?”

Abu Hurairah menjawab, “Saya membawa 500 ribu dirham.”

Karena begitu banyaknya, Khalifah Umar terperanjat, tidak percaya. Beliau kemudian bertanya, “Apakah itu harta yang sah?”

Abu Hurairah menjawab, “Saya tidak tahu kecuali memang demikian adanya.” (Karim, 2001; Muhammad, 2002).

Pada masanya, Khalifah Umar bin Khathab mampu menggaji guru di Madinah masing-masing 15 dinar (1 dinar=4,25 gr emas). Jika 1 gr emas saat ini seharga Rp 200 ribu, berarti masa itu gaji guru mencapai sekitar Rp 12,75 juta.

Pada masanya pula, setiap tentara berkuda pernah mendapatkan ghanîmah sebesar 6000 dirham (sekitar Rp 75 juta), dan masing-masing tentara infanteri mendapat bagian sebesar 2000 dirham (sekitar Rp 25 juta). (Ash-Shinnawi, 2006).

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